Leading a healthy lifestyle is often associated with vigorous workouts and intense physical activities. However, recent research suggests that light physical activity, which we often overlook, could be just as essential for our health. Activities such as washing dishes, giving a presentation, or even going for a walk can contribute significantly to our overall health.
This article delves into the importance of light physical activity, its impact on inflammation, and how incorporating more movement into our daily routines can lead to better health outcomes.
Re-evaluating Exercise Recommendations
For years, official exercise recommendations have emphasized the importance of moderate to vigorous physical activities. These guidelines suggest at least 150 minutes per week of activities ranging from brisk walking to intense mountain bike racing. However, this spectrum overlooks an array of “light” physical activities such as washing dishes, changing a diaper, or giving a PowerPoint presentation.
While we often don’t consider these tasks as exercise, some researchers argue that they may be essential to our health. “Light physical activity appears to be the key to almost universal success regarding health,” stated Andrew Agbaje, MD, a clinical epidemiologist at the University of Eastern Finland.
The Hidden Cost of Inactivity
As children grow older, their levels of physical activity tend to decrease. The blame often lies on societal factors that encourage sedentary behavior, such as school, homework, and screen time. According to Agbaje, “We’re playing with a time bomb.”
In a study involving nearly 800 children, Agbaje tracked changes in the children’s activities between ages 11 and 24, focusing on their C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation and a potential indicator of cardiovascular disease. The findings were enlightening:
- Moderate-to-vigorous activity remained constant over time.
- Light physical activity decreased by about 3.5 hours per day.
- Sedentary behaviors increased by almost 3 hours per day.
- C-reactive protein significantly increased from age 15 to 24.
Interestingly, while sedentariness was linked to rising C-reactive protein, any intensity of activity was associated with lower inflammation. “Light physical activity looks like an unsung hero,” Agbaje commented.
Balancing Time and Intensity
Despite the benefits of light physical activity, there are reasons why public health guidelines focus on higher intensities. A study of Swedish military conscripts showed that those with the highest exercise capacity in their late teens had 19% less subclinical arterial plaque four decades later. Higher exercise capacity typically results from more intense exercise.
“You will need to do more,” advised Melony Fortuin-de Smidt, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher at Umea University in Sweden, when discussing the benefits of lower-intensity activities.
In a recent study, it was estimated that 60 minutes of “normal” pace walking could offer the same reduction in cardiovascular disease risk as 40 minutes of brisk walking. However, these figures should be interpreted cautiously due to their reliance on self-reported data.
Exploring the Spectrum of Light Activity
A 2019 study, which employed data from activity trackers, provided insightful estimates on the time required for different physical activity intensities to achieve maximum protection from premature mortality:
- It was found that engaging in moderate-to-vigorous activity for a mere 24 minutes daily could significantly decrease the risk of early death.
- If one were to engage solely in light activities, the duration would have to be dramatically longer — over 6 hours daily — to reap the same mortality benefits. This is a striking 15 times longer, as pointed out by Fortuin-de Smidt.
Interestingly, the study also introduced an intermediate category dubbed “high” light physical activity. This included activities such as:
- Low-intensity yoga or calisthenics
- Cooking or cleaning
- Shopping or gardening
For these ‘high’ light activities, only 75 minutes per day would be necessary to gain health benefits equivalent to those achieved with 24 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity.
What’s important to note here is that the intensity of an activity is not strictly about the type of activity itself. Rather, it’s about the effort exerted in performing it. So, any of the aforementioned activities could potentially fall under regular light or even moderate-to-vigorous categories, depending on how quickly or slowly they are carried out.
Embracing Movement in All Its Forms
The objective isn’t to rigorously classify every action into categories of intensity like vigorous, moderate, “high” light or regular light. In reality, most of our daily activities probably blend these categories. The primary aim is straightforward – we simply need to embrace more movement in our lives. As Fortuin-de Smidt articulately puts it, “Every move and every step contributes to better health.”
Agbaje draws a compelling analogy between exercise and medicine. According to him, each person needs to tailor their ‘dosage’ of exercise to align with their individual needs, goals, and abilities. Therefore, Agbaje advocates for increasing movement wherever possible, regardless of whether it fits the conventional definition of exercise. He firmly believes that light physical activity is safe for everyone and encourages people to take simple steps towards this, such as going for a walk.